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Dissertation Prospectus How Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) contribute to learning disability? Andre C. Justice 11/11/2016 Argosy University PSY 492   Introduction Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (also Hyperkinetic Disorder in the UK) is a complex mental health condition that is associated with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention and is diagnosed in childhood, but can persist into adolescence through to adulthood. On the other hand, Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that is triggered by horror or terror through experience or witness of a traumatic event. It is usually synonymous with flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, coupled with unmanageable thoughts about the same incident. Mental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and their effects on learning have been subjects of discussion over the periods. The underlying mechanisms of how they add to learning disabilities are one question that has brought about mixed reactions among the mental health professionals. Further questions as to whether they are neurological or psychological disorders have also been raised (Mason-Allgood, 2005). However, the answers are still debatable. Background of the study Education remains one of the greatest anchors of success in the world. It provides the keys to career opportunities to school going children as well as enlightening the generations. A vast majority of successful people owe it to education. Parents are therefore obliged to ensure that their children get the from the education sector in the best environment possible. Our societies are prone to preventable disasters that frequently occur. The calamities range from parental conflicts, robbery, fatal road accidents, the demise of loved ones to national disasters such as terrorism and civil wars. These disasters have far-reaching effects on children, going beyond the physical into their mental orientation (Smith, 2010). Some of the children end up in trauma and stress by such events. Many of the bottlenecks that we have in our schools are evidence of ADHD (Tiah, 2013). The stress and trauma are substantially reflected in the manner of the decline in the children’s class performance, being linked closely to these disasters. For instance, a study revealed a young child with difficulties going to sleep, experienced a decline in concentration both at home and school. The study further showed that each time he hears a siren he raises the window shouting “Cops are coming! Cops are coming” (Thomas, 1996 p. 311). This steps up the need to put more emphasis on neurological and psychological examination. Conceptual/Theoretical Framework There are very many diagnoses which contain many variables which impact behavior and particularly the attention of a child. The Association of Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently, implemented a theoretical framework that significantly reviews its guidance for accommodating persons with disability in the higher learning set up (Brock, 2012). This is as a result of increased poor performance and dropout cases, which is further attributed to institutional issues which at times influence the cognitive ability and attention. However, previous research has shown that lack of interest and commitment is a primary motive for children dropping out of school. The research found out that the class is very boring and offers little or no motivation to the children to work hard (Luft, 2015). For instance, one of the participants difficult issues examined previously in the study shows a lack of preparedness. On the other hand, similar behavioral strategies apply when a complex issue is more related to task performance. Literature Review. Below are the articles revised to help show the relationship that exists between learning ability and ADHD or PTSD and further reveal the gaps that there exist in the study. The absence of focus on the forethought reflection phases of SRL training is an apparent gap in this literature. Another gap in teaching reading is the brain development in children: for example, countries like Finland, which performs exemplary well in international tests, including a test on reading, don’t begin teaching reading, except when the children are seven years of age, when their cognitive abilities are more advanced. The No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001through its reading first provision tend to lay emphasis on reading instruction in American schools. Thus, bridging the gap in test performance between ethnic minorities and mainstream “white” Americans. Subsequently, the NRP did not investigate research that mainly addressed the bottlenecks encountered by the ethnic minority students. A good example is English language learners and students speaking substandard dialects of English (Reyhren, 2008) Problem statement. In the recent past, there has been an alarming rise in a bad performance of children as depicted by their declining grades, though being sufficiently taught at school. This has been majorly a course of worry among children, especially, those whose parents engage in frequent conflicts, or those who have lost their loved ones in the recent past and those who have experienced a traumatic event such as civil unrest or robbery with violence. This has triggered the need to research on the effects of mental disorder on the learning capability of children. The research findings will adversely contribute to the development of a recovery program to the victims to ensure that exemplary performance among children is restored. The findings may also help in providing a framework to mitigate these disasters in future. On the other hand, children who suffer from ADHD have poor social skills while at school. There has been slow social development among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity, which in turn may affect their relationship with their teachers, hence poor performance. ADHD can also be considered a possible cause of learning disability among children. Sample and location This study targets a middle size population of approximately 500 children, part of whom have suffered Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and/or Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or are normal. The three groups shall be subject to class teaching for one year then after which they shall be evaluated using a standardized test. Research questions Below are the research questions which the study will try to answer through its findings. The questions will also act as guidelines to the research project. 1. To what extent do mental disorders such as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affect learning among school going, children? 2. How does such school going children behave when learning, especially, in a school setting? Hypothesis/variable H0: There is no significant difference in school performance between children who are suffering from mental disorders and those who are normal. H1: Children suffering from mental disorders perform significantly worse than the healthy ones. Methodology and Design The method used in these recearchs is to study three groups of children (Normal children, children suffering from ADHD and children suffering from PTSD) to teaching for one year. The children are then supposed to be subjected to sets of standardized tests. The results are then keyed in the table below. Number of children First Examination (Average Results) Second Examination (Average Results) Third Examination (Average Results) Children with ADHD Boys Girls Children with PTSD Boys Girls Normal Children Boys Girls Purpose of the statement. The goal of this study is to determine the extent to which mental disorders affect children’s performances in the examination and consequently the overall academic excellence in the society. It aims at exploring how ADHD and PTSD contribute to a decline in performance of children in school. This is done through a controlled study of the behavior of affected children and normal ones in school. Data Collection method. The study will use largely depend on primary data collected through a controlled study of the performance and behavior of about 500 children. The children to be employed in this study are either with a background of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) or are normal. They are to be subjected to a controlled standard learning and examination to evaluate their performance within a year. However, the study will also use some secondary sources of data to assess other people’s work and identify the gaps. Data analysis. Data analysis is the process of analyzing the information and evaluating the relevant information that can be instrumental in aiding better decision making (Sivia and Skilling, 2006). The data collected will be subjected to a series of statistical tests. These data will be analyzed through computation and assessment of various measures from examination results. These actions include measure of central tendency, dispersion and other statistical measures such as mean and modal, using statistical software. The results of the analysis can then be used to make a conclusion on the hypotheses to establish the truth concerning them. The results can be used to confirm or reject if there exist any significant difference in school performance between children suffering from ADHD and PTSD, and mentally well children.   References Brock, S. E. (2012). Research Summaries. Communique, 41(4), 16-17. Luft, P. (January 01, 2015). Transition Services for DHH Adolescents and Young Adults With Disabilities: Challenges and Theoretical Frameworks. American Annals of the Deaf,160, 4, 395-414. Mason-Allgood, C. (2005). The relationship between externalizing and internalizing symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in severely emotionally disturbed (SED) children. Reyhner, J. (2008). The reading wars. Retrieved June 1, 2016, from Smith, P. (2010). Post-traumatic stress disorder: Cognitive therapy with children and young people. London: Routledge. Tiah, T. M., Shapiro, E. S., DuPaul, G. J., Kern, L., & Manz, P. H. (2013). Predictability of ADHD Behavioral Symptoms: A Follow-Up Examination in At-Risk Preschool Children. Thomas, J. M. (March 07, 1996). Traumatic stress disorder presents as hyperactivity and disruptive ‘behavior: Case Presentation, diagnoses, and treatment. Infant Mental Health Journal, 16, 4, 306-317. The real cost of a bomb threat at your kid’s school. (n.d.). Retrieved from no copying make your own words apa rules running header page number

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